January 11, 2020

The conundrum of Nikon Z6 ProRes RAW

Zoomed and scaled view of a zone plate test shot (Nikon Z6, photo mode - no video!)

Ever since Nikon and Atomos annonced the availability of the Apple ProRes RAW codec for Nikon Z6 (and Z7) cameras back at CES 2019, the more curious-minded among us were puzzled.

How can that be? Not the part that a RAW codec via external recording over HDMI was made possible. That part of the announcement sounded fairly straighforward. After all, a RAW codec only contains one channel per pixel. So, even at 12 Bit, there should be ample of bandwidth left in the HDMI specification - even when going beyond 4k. To be precise, HDMI 2.0 supports up to 18 Gbps. a raw 30fps 4k (UHD) 12bit signal is 2.78 Gbps. Even 6k raw adds up to 6.26 Gbps. So enough bandwidth indeed.

The puzzling part was that Atomos and Nikon announced the external raw feed would be 4k. Apple ProRes RAW is compressed but unbayered pixel data directly from the sensor. But it is known that the Nikon Z6 does a full ~6k sensor readout to downsample its video feed. The Nikon Z6 has no 4k raw data! How can that be? We're eventually going to answer that now!

Some background consideration:

I had a hope: Maybe, Nikon is actually outputting a 6k raw video feed and only hiding the fact to make the Z6 not outshine the more expensive Z7. This was further feeded by the later Panasonic announcement to support 6k raw with Atomos. Others were less naiv than me and expected Nikon to do line skipping in raw video. Of course, that would be rather bad ... why should one then use the raw option at all if internal recording uses supersampling?

Let's have a quick look at the options Nikon is having in the first place: As far as I know, Nikon is using the Sony IMX410CQK CMOS image sensor (PDF linked). This sensor has 23 readout modes. It has 3 full sensor readout modes, a 14Bit (19fps) and two 12Bit (~39fps, modes 1, 2). And it has 3 4k readout modes, a 14Bit (35fps) and two 12Bit (72fps, mode 4 and 97fps, mode 5). The two 14Bit modes are used for still photos, in FX and DX (cropped) mode, obviously. The public document unfortunately lacks details about cropping and skipping used in the various readout modes. The Nikon Z6 supports 4k in both FX (full frame) and DX (cropped) video. Obviously, two of the remaining readout modes are used for that, say modes 1 and 5. So, there is one more 4k readout mode left, say mode 4 (assuming the faster mode 5 is used for cropping). So theoretically, there can be a full frame 4k readout mode in the Z6 sensor. Of course, such a mode would skip pixels.

Personally, I do not believe that this mode exists: modes 4 and 5 both sample 4160 px width, and with 2:1 row skipping, would need the sensor to be 6240 pixels wide. But it only is 6064 px. Therefore, I believe all full frame 4k sensor readout modes are cropped and any kind of pixel skipping would be done after readout by dropping data.

Testing methodology:

Line skipping, and to a certain extent, other forms of pixel skipping can be measured. The method of choice are zone plate test charts. I drafted my own version, available for download on my site and displayed below:
Zone plate test chart
As the zone plate is designed for HD rather than 6k resolution, it has to be filmed small enough to provide useful information. The header image at the start of the article shows the above chart, photographed (not filmed!) by a Nikon Z6. A fraction of the chart was displayed on a 3840px-wide monitor. The resulting 24MP photo was cropped to 16:9, then downsampled (bilinear) to 4k (3840x2160px), then cropped to 10% (380x216px), then upsampled 400% (nearest neighbor). The same procedure was also applied to every image displayed below, except for the initial downsampling step.

The red lines in the initial image are the spatial frequencies (of the zone plate rings) corresponding to 6.048k (6048px was also the width of the original still image out of camera). Also shown is the UHD region of spatial frequencies (the inner part of the green rectangle).

As you can see, even the still image shows artifacts, the green/magenta rings at the crossings of the red lines! This is a "standard" color moiré pattern as expected from any sensor without an AA anti-alias low-pass filter and a Bayer color filter. The pattern is strongest at a 45° diagonal angle (1:1 slope). Actually and unlike the Z7, the Z6 does have an AA filter. But it isn't strong enough to completely suppress color moiré and my testing methodology can still measure it. Note that this does also provide us with a precise measurement of the Z6 pixel pitch - whatever Nikon and Sony are telling us. Actually, they tell us the truth here ;)

What then would artifacts from line skipping look like? Well, here is an example from the D800:
->  LumoLabs: Nikon D800 video function demystified.
The D800 only samples every 3rd line and there are blue/yellow artifact rings at 1/3 the sensor pitch spatial frequency; but only at 90°/270° on the zone plates. The still image from the Z6 has no such artifacts.

Nikon Z6 test results

Actual testing has been made possible by both, the Nikon release of the raw feature (a paid in-the-Nikon-center firmware upgrade) and a wonderful collaborator: Marc Jungbluth from Germany (IG @marc_jungbluth, Youtube Marc Jungbluth); make sure to visit his channel - he has some wonderful content about working with Nikon and ProRes RAW. Marc went through the tedious work to videograph the test chart and find the optimal scale and setup. Marc, thank You so much!

First, as a point of reference, let's look at footage from in-the-camera debayering:
Internal recording; FX 4k video frame from Z6, cropped, scaled, graded
You see three things:
  • The debayering moiré artifacts at 6.048k frequency at 1:1 slopes
  • Same at 2:1/1:2 slopes (the secondary green/magenta rings)
  • Ever so slightly blue/yellow debayering moiré artifacts at 1:0/0:1 slopes
The strong contrast is due to the color profile used. The visibility of secondary green/magenta rings is an indicator that the debayering process used for video is simpler than that used in stills mode, leaving out some twirks to prevent color moiré. As we will see, the same applies to debayering when done by the Apple ProRes codecs (FCPX, Compressor). There are no additional artifacts, meaning that the video frame is sampled from a full sensor readout indeed.

External recording 10Bit NLog; FX 4k video frame from Z6, cropped, scaled, graded
The video frames recorded externally using Nlog share the same charasteristics as those recorded internally, except for contrast. I tried to color grade all video frames to look about the same, as good as I could. I did try not match sharpness as that wasn't my aim. There is no indication that another sensor readout mode would have been used here.

Note: the frames show slightly different scales. The shooting distance or cropping of frames is constant though, what has changed is the actual region of the sensor being used for readout. More on that later. The important point here is that artifact frequencies didn't change, i.e., the differences in scale are due to cropping rather than skipping.

ProRes RAW

To process ProRes RAW HQ, I used Apple Compressor to produce a video clip, shown below, and said video frames. Compressor can produce 16Bit Tiff HDR frame images directly from ProRes RAW footage.

The video looks like this: Test video
The video shows a short disturbence, where motion blur temporarily destroys artifact rings - great for analysis :) The video also gives you a better idea how small the artifacts really are.

External recording 12Bit ProRes RAW HQ; FX 4k video frame from Z6, cropped, scaled, graded
You see four things:
  • The debayering moiré artifacts at 6.048k frequency at 1:1 slopes
  • Same at 2:1/1:2 slopes (the secondary green/magenta rings)
  • Strong blue/yellow artifacts at 6.048k frequency at 1:0/0:1 slopes
  • Secondary blue/yellow artifacts at ~4k frequency at 1:0/0:1 slopes
The blue/yellow artifact rings actually look exactly as line skipping artifacts. Actually line and row skipping as they are at 0° and 180° positions as well. Except for their frequency: you can't skip every line! Moreover, the secondary blue/yellow artifact rings seem to indicate that some sampling is happening at a ~4k frequency too (possibly 4.16k as these are the sensor's 4k readout modes, or 3.84k when skipping 1/3 of rows).

Therefore, I conclude that for ProResRAW, the sensor uses a readout mode or data pipeline which skips pixels. I am not going to call it line or row skipping yet. Skipping, e.g., every 3rd line and 3rd row doesn't end up to produce a feed which can be debayered easily. However, you can read 4, and then drop 2, lines and rows - and still end up with a Bayer pattern. And it should indeed lead to both, 6k and 4k artifacts. That's line and row skipping and I personally believe that this is what is going on. However, I am not ready yet to draw that conclusion officially. Officially I say though that Nikon applies pixel skipping in ProRes RAW.


As already mentioned above, the video frame looks scaled depending on the kind of recording. Doing a quick calculation, I come up with the following approximative figures:

Mode: Sensor-width read
Photo: 6048 px (JPG)
Internal: 6000 px
Ext. NLog: 5400 px
Ext. PRraw: 5760 px
with an error margin of ~100px.

The fact that ext. NLog uses fewer pixels than internal may be an indication that Nikon is working on the edge of feasibility here. The ext. ProRes RAW mode may use an exact number of 5760 px, or 1.5x the produced 3840 feed. Another sign for 4:2 row skipping.


The Nikon Z6 is able to output a full frame ProRes RAW 12 Bit feed via HDMI to an Atomos Ninja V recorder. Which the Z7 and most other cameras can't. However and sadly, this feed isn't created from a ~6k internal full sensor readout, like the internal and external NLog feeds are. Rather, it seems to be created from pixel-skipping to 4k when reading out the sensor. Possibly skipping double lines and rows - although that is a speculation.

Therefore, external footage using ProRes RAW should exhibit extra color moiré (skipping artefacts), extra line flickering, a bit less acuity (texture resolution) and a bit more noise (1 stop less light captured). On the other hand, raw footage has more latitude (dynamic range to work with), possibly less compression and a bit wider field of view than NLog.

I haven't yet have the chance to evaluate all this in practice. It may turn out to be totally irrelevant in practice and ProRes RAW is the way to go. Or it may be a show stopper because NLog, all things considered, actually outperforms ProRes RAW. It probably is something in between :) For a practical evaluation, I would look at line/edge/roof-tile flickering in a motion film first.


Nikon, your ProRes RAW should have been a no brainer. Esp. as a paid upgrade. Unfortunately, it isn't. Please, add your dropped pixel data back into the prores raw pipeline and make it a 6k feed. All pieces should be there already, no need to protect the Z7, rather think of the Panas ... Thanks for listening :)


  1. I am afraid that EVERY big company will piss on its users as long they are uneducated/ not aware of the situation. People are jizzing themselves when they see specs listed, let the specs be false or not, the higher the number number the more jizz in pants of clients flows instantly. Big companies know very well how uneducated people make decisions (based upon excitement).
    To add to the problem - there are many clowns on YouTube doing UNMARKED product placement, they pretend being extremely excited by latest camera out there. Jizz again. Nikon laughs at people in headquarters in Japan.

    1. I may delete this comment at a later time - as it contains no information.

  2. Its interesting. But I miss the connection with Z7. Why the hell they crippled the Z7 with 1.5x crop for 4k (5504px readout)? Wouldn't be easier to crop 1.075x to get 7680px readout and bin every second line? Or this wouldn't be possible because of the Bayer matrix? But still there would be an option to skip 2:2, wouldn't be?

  3. I've been shooting prores raw with z6, and have noticed since the first day that there is a slight crop, not as significant as in nlog mode, but still noticeable. So I believe your calculation is right. Nikon intentially crippled z6 prores raw function, so that their z6 successor will be able to use 6k full pixel prores raw as a big selling point, without even having to use a new sensor. And until then, Nikon will not officially admit the prores raw in z6 is crippled, for obvious reasons.

    1. Well, here you speculate. I do still imagine that there is a more mundane reason, like a crippled implementation of the HDMI port. This could actually explain the slight crop in nlog mode.

  4. This is all very interesting. As a Z 6 owner, I loved watching Marc's videos unfold. There is a lot of info going around regarding the Z 6 and how it implements the PRR. But the more you search ProRes Raw Moire issues, or even just Raw video Moire, the more it seems to be a somewhat common thing. Could the presence of Moire be due to a lack of any in camera processing, or filters applied in Raw shooting? Just curious because you can find a lot of forums regarding moire on the FS5 and BMCC Raw. Also, would it be technically possible for Nikon to up the Z 6 to the full 6K just as Panasonic is doing with the S1H? I mean, it's going over HDMI as well and the Ninja will be updated per Atomos. Any insight would be greatly appreciated. Thanks!

    1. Part of the issue certainly is Final Cut Pro, more specifically, a lack of proper raw preprocessing incl. noise reduction and false color detection. Maybe, Adobe comes up with a better codec. I guess the quality with ProRes Raw will improve over time - like it did in ACR.

      Wether or not the Z6 can deliver 6k raw over hdmi ... I wrote about it in the article. Most likely yes. I assume the real bottleneck is the Z6 HDMI port which doesn't support the full bandwidth the spec allows. However, 10bit 4:2:2 nlog 3840x2160@30fps and 12bit raw 5760x3000@24fps (17.28:9) have the EXACT same bandwidth over HDMI. So yes, Nikon FOR SURE can implement 6k raw - at least in a 24fps 18:9 variant!

  5. I have looked for examples of the Z7 prorez raw implementation and only found one bad one. I am fine with a super 35 size frame, It's what I used shooting film for years. Does the Z7 suffer the same skipping problems ie softness and moire?


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