October 28, 2009
Lumolabs: Pentax K-x sensor quality
The Pentax K-x is an incredible machine for an entry level SLR. Here, I will look at the image quality which its sensor can produce.
In my lumolab testings, I will not report about ergonomics or lack of features etc. The internet is full of this easily obtained information and I will refrain from duplicating it here.
Test chart results:
The photo at the top of the article is an ISO test shot taken at ISO 1600 and color temperature 2900°K. It is a linearly converted RAW file (cf. "further reading" at the end of the article). Go to the gallery (click the image) to have a look at all test shots, available at original full size.
ISO resolution test chart using FA 31 Ltd. at f/4.5. The inner part is 4x. The Nyquist limit is at "7.1" in the inner part. Watch the original at 100% size.
The K-x resolves down to the Nyquist limit. However, it exhibits color moiré and false demosaicing at the limit frequency. The anti alias filter is very weak or absent as it allows for moiré down to three times the Nyquist limit. Color moiré is visible for textures at the Nyquist frequency.
E.g., note that the "7" patch has false demosaicing and strong color moiré. The same is visible from the zone plate chart. The K-7 doesn't show this in comparison.
Zone plate test chart using FA 31 Ltd. at f/4.5. The big circles have a resolution limit of 1280 LW/PH. The smaller ones are 2x and 4x. The 4x circles at above ~4000 LW/PH have uncolored printing moiré. The Nyquist limit is at 2848 LW/PH which is about 55% into the smallest circle. Watch the original at 100% size.
The zone plate chart of the K-x has false colors (fringing) already at half the Nyquist frequency and "green blobs" at three-quarter of the Nyquist frequency, followed by heavy color moiré at the Nyquist frequency exactly. The latter two effects are limited in spatial frequency space but the fringing is kind of disappointing.
While most testers will not notice the effect and welcome "the good resolving power of the K-x", which "leaves no resolution advantage to the K-7" (anticipated quotes from future pseudo tests), I personally would have preferred a stronger anti alias filter.
Numerical lab result:
The numerical evaluation of all noise charts (the full SNR plot) is as follows:
Signal to noise ratio (SNR) for the Pentax K-x. Full measurement for various luminosities and ISO settings at color temperature 2900°K. Measurement similiar to dxomark.com. The dotted lines indicate the slope for pure photon shot noise.
It is possible to derive both dynamic range and noise from the graph. If extrapolating the 0db point for ISO 100 at luminosity 0.01%, then the resulting dynamic range is 13.3 EV (print-normalized to 13.6 EV). E.g., DxO tests the print-normalized dynamic range of the K20D to be 11.05 EV and of the outstanding Nikon D3X to be 13.65. The flattening at 30% gray and brighter is believed to be due to systematic measurement errors like imperfect gray patches.
The theoretical photon noise separation between neighboring ISO lines is 3dB. There are three effects which can be observed:
- The SNR at ISO 100 is reduced for luminance levels above ~3% and drops to the ISO 200 values. A sign that ISO 100 is no native IO value for this sensor. On the other hand, it is exceptionally high for luminance levels below ~3%, with a boost more like ISO 75 than ISO 100.
- The ISO 3200 line is only 0.5 dB separated from the ISO 1600 line. DxO labs found that this is due to noise reduction applied to RAW data at ISO 3200 and higher. Without such noise reduction, the SNR would obviously be about 2.5 dB lower. This smoothing is even stronger than for the K-7.
Overall, the gray level noise (the SNR at luminosity 18.00%) is very close to the competition (worse at ISO 100, same at ISO 200 and better beyond) while the black level noise (the SNR at luminosity 0.10%) is very small. The ISO 1600 curve provides about the same black signal than ISO 100 pushed +4EV.
I have not measured SNR for luminance below 0.04%. But from extrapolation one may deduce that the K-x has a dynamic range of about 13.6 EV which would be even an excellent value for a full frame camera.
Update - The K-x "bump" at 2%, ISO 100 (2009, October 29):
Because of the importance of the ISO 100 SNR curve at low luminosities for the outstanding dynamic range claim made for the K-x, I have evaluated available testing material again, with special emphasis on this bump.
Signal to noise ratio (SNR) for the Pentax K-x. Full measurement for various luminosities and ISO 100 at color temperature 2900°K. Measurement similiar to dxomark.com. The dotted lines indicate the slope for pure photon shot noise.
This graph is meant to study the "bump" at about luminosity 2% in the ISO 100 curve of the full SNR graph (cf. above). The full 12 EV test chart is compiled from two parts: one exposed normally, another underexposed by 5 stops.
The above plot is a reexamination of both parts, now separately evaluated. There indeed is a discontinuous step (by +1.8 dB) when going from the normal to the -5EV curve which I cannot currently explain. The flattening of the brightest parts looks the same and could indeed be due to imperfect bright print patches. This would imply an underestimation of the "bump" by another 1.7 dB leading to a possible overall overestimation of SNR by +3.5 dB in the dark part.
Even taking this correction into account though, the above plot still confirms an extrapolated 0 dB SNR point at 0.01% luminosity. Therefore, the conclusions made in the other sesctions are not altered by this detail examination.
(end of update)
- Resolution: Full Nyquist 12.2 Mpixel resolution, some moiré, some color moiré, some demosaicing artifacts. Very weak or absent anti alias filter.
- Noise: Gray level 40.0 dB at ISO 100, 31.6 dB at ISO 1600, dynamic range (print-normalized) >13 EV.
The image quality is good at low ISO values and very good if shadows are pushed-processed. It is outstanding at high ISO values and sets the bar for 2010. I haven't tested the Nikon D700 but from the known results, I say that the Pentax K-x is seriously challenging the D700 in terms of high ISO noise and dynamic range. With a much smaller body, a smaller sensor and a much smaller price tag ... and video ;)
I award the Pentax K-x the following title:
"Dynamic range champion 2009 in the 35 mm body class".
- Lumolabs: Pentax K-7 sensor quality
- Lumolabs testing methodology.